2014 Neurologist Inge Monstad – Statement

Extract: One of the most respected top neurologists in Norway – specialized in migraine and the treatment of pain – has written a statement regarding MigrainePolice and its work. Dr.Monstad who has been giving speeches and lectures on migraine nationally and internationally for many years, is a Member of Honour of the Norwegian Migraine Organization

In this statement, Monstad describes the prevalence of migraine and the connection to red wine.
He describes the problem of how to choose a suited wine for the migraineur.

Finally he emphasizes the importance of offering such guidance to migraine patients “to avoid migraine attacks triggered by biogene amines or too much tannins”.

2011 EFSA Journal – Scientific Opinion on risk based control of biogenic amine

Extract: A qualitative risk assessment of biogenic amines (BA) in fermented foods was conducted, using data from the scientific literature, as well as from European Union-related surveys, reports and consumption data. Histamine and tyramine are considered as the most toxic and food safety relevant, and fermented foods are of particular BA concern due to associated intensive microbial activity and potential for BA formation. Based on mean content in foods and consumer exposure data, fermented food categories were ranked in respect to histamine and tyramine.

2010 Austria Hemmer – Levels of histamine and other biogenic amines in high quality red wines

Extract: Biogenic amines in wine may impair sensory wine quality and cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. In this study, histamine and other biogenic amines were determined by HPLC after amine derivatization to dansyl chloride conjugates in 100 selected high quality red wines made from seven different cultivars. Amine levels varied considerably between different wines. Adopting a legal histamine threshold level of 10 mg/L in the EU, as formerly introduced in other countries, would have excluded 34% of the investigated wines from the market.

2010 Italy: Russo & Spano & others – Are consumers aware of the risk of BA in food & beverages

Extract: The presence of BA in foods has traditionally been used as an indicator of undesired microbial activity. Relatively high levels of certain BA have also been reported to indicate the deterioration of food products and/or their defective manufacture. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding BA content in many fermented products, it is generally assumed that they should not be allowed to accumulate.

In general, histamine, tyramine and tryptamine, formed by decarboxilation of corresponding amino acids, are directly responsible for food poisoning. Among BA, histamine is extensively reported to play an important role in food poisoning incidents. High histamine levels can induce migraine, headaches [31], vertigo, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, arrhythmia, anaphylaxia.

2010 France-BACH & more – Evolution of biogenic amines content in wine during

Extract: The word “biogenic” means “created by life”. The term “biogenic amines” is given for all the amines from the metabolism of living cells, animal, vegetable or microbial. Biogenic amines in wine are mainly of microbial origin. These compounds may have an impact on human.

Biogenic amines are naturally present in wine and a regulation on the maximum level is currently under study. In addition, biogenic amines, besides their effect on human health, also play a role in masking flavors. In this context, it becomes essential to develop a reliable analytical method for rapid quantification of their presence in wines.

2009 NapaValley ETS Lab – Biogenic amines relevance to the wine industry

Extract: Why should wine producers be concerned about biogenic amines? Indication/perception there may be sanitation problems. Many wine importers in the European Union are requiring analysis of biogenic amines on import documents. At this time, importers consider presence of biogenic amines an indicator of poor sanitation. Proposed regulations will include biogenic amines under the classification of allergens.
Surveyed 284 wines from California, Oregon and Washington.
Histamine ranged from <1 ppm to 72 ppm, 49 wines >10.
135 out of 284 samples had total biogenic amine >10 ppm.
232 out of 284 samples had total biogenic amines >1 ppm

2007 USA Maintz & Novak – Histamine & histamine intollerance

Extract: Histamine intolerance results from a disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. Histamine is a biogenic amine that occurs to various degrees in many foods. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be rapidly detoxified by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity.

The ingestion of histamine-rich food or of alcohol or drugs that release histamine or block DAO may provoke diarrhea, headache, rhinoconjunctival symptoms, asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia, urticaria, pruritus, flushing, and other conditions in patients with histamine intolerance. Symptoms can be reduced by a histamine-free diet or be eliminated by antihistamines.

2006-Vermont-Analysis of Histamine in Wine Samples

Extract: Histamine is considered to be an allergen and a causative agent for headaches. While on average histamine in wine is 5.7 ppm and 3.4 ppm for red and white wine respectively, an extremely low histamine content is a desirable characteristic. The detection limit of the test kit is considered to be the lowest standard containing histamine (i.e. 0.5 ppb). Because wine samples are diluted 1:500, the lowest detectable limit in wine samples therefore would be 250 ppb. This is well below the typical ranges in wine, which are usually in the low ppm range. Some countries have established limits for histamine in wines.

Switzerland recommends 10 mg/L as a maximal level, Germany recommends 2 mg/L, while Belgium and France recommend 5 mg/L and 8 mg/ml respectively. [3].

2004 Turkey Elsevier – The determination of biogenicamines in Turkish red wines

Extract: The enological importance of the biogenic amines in wines is due to their possible toxicological risks and the possibility of the relationship between high amine content and unsanitary conditions during wine production procedures. The aim of this work is to determine the biogenic amines profile of quality red Turkish wines by using high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization and photodiode array detection. The levels of biogenic amines in Turkish red wines were investigated for the first time.

2004 Italy – D’Andrea – Amines and headache

Extract: The hypothesis that trace amines such as tyramine, octopamine, and synephrine, closely related chemically
to classic biogenic amines,1,2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary headaches was proposed several decades ago.3,4 The observation that certain foods rich in tyramine, such as chocolate, citrus fruits, and cheese, caused a hypertensive headache response in depressed patients treated with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors raised the possibility that the increased sensitivity to tyraminecontaining foods in dietary migraine might be due to a deficiency in MAO activity.

1997 USA UCLA – How Food Can Cause Headaches

Extract: Research on the Role of Food in Migraine Headaches Studies implicating food in the pathogenesis of migraines date back to the 1920’s when researchers began to examine and manipulate the diets of individuals suffering from migraines. In order to determine which foods might initiate a migraine, a method consisting of “elimination diets” was utilized. A similar study of 104 adults, 38.5% showed a 50% or greater reduction in headaches on the elimination diet (3). Berg and Braham (1994) confirmed these results in an equivalent study; 34.6% of the adults and 82.2% of the children reported a 50% or greater reduction in migraine attacks.

1996 Austria Wantke – Wine and headache

Extract: Headache can be induced by histamine in wine in patients suffering from histamine intolerance, a disease characterized by impaired histamine degradation based on reduced amine oxidase activity or lack of the enzyme. In experimental models, headache can be induced by histamine infusion as well as red wine provocation. Histamine induced headache is a vascular headache likely to be caused by nitric oxide which probably represents a key molecule in vascular headaches. A histamine free diet is the treatment of choice for patients with histamine intolerance and cronic headache.

1994 Austria-WANTKE – The Red Wine Provocation Test

Extract: Sneezing,flush, headache, diarrhea, skin itch, and shortness of breath are symptoms occurring in patients intolerant to wine after drinking one glass of red wine. The role of histamine in wine intolerance was evaluated by a red wine provocation test in 28 patients with a history of wine intolerance and in 10 controls with good tolerance of wine.

Histamine is causing wine intolerance. Patients intolerant to wine seem to have diminished histamine degradation probably based on a deficiency of diamine oxidase. (Allergy Proc 15:27-32, 1994)

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