2010 Italy: Russo & Spano & others – Are consumers aware of the risk of BA in food & beverages

Extract: The presence of BA in foods has traditionally been used as an indicator of undesired microbial activity. Relatively high levels of certain BA have also been reported to indicate the deterioration of food products and/or their defective manufacture. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding BA content in many fermented products, it is generally assumed that they should not be allowed to accumulate.

In general, histamine, tyramine and tryptamine, formed by decarboxilation of corresponding amino acids, are directly responsible for food poisoning. Among BA, histamine is extensively reported to play an important role in food poisoning incidents. High histamine levels can induce migraine, headaches [31], vertigo, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, arrhythmia, anaphylaxia.

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